Ultimately, the two projects should be seen as complementary, with the structures of the latter dependent on the structures of the former. That is, valid phenomenological descriptions of the formal structures of the Life-world should be wholly consistent with the descriptions of the formal structures of intentional consciousness. It is from the latter that the former derives its validity and truth value Sokolowski The phenomenological position is that although the facticity of the social world may be culturally and historically relative, the formal structures of consciousness, and the processes by which we come to know and understand this facticity, are not.
That is, the understanding of any actual social world is unavoidably dependent on understanding the structures and processes of consciousness that found, and constitute, any possible social world. Alternatively, if the facticity of the social world and the structures of consciousness prove to be culturally and historically relative, then we are at an impasse in regard to any meaningful scientific understanding of the social world which is not subjective as opposed to being objective and grounded in nature [positivism], or inter subjective and grounded in the structures of consciousness [phenomenology] , and relative to the cultural and idealization formations of particular concrete individuals living in a particular socio-historical group.
A particularly important contemporary contribution to the sociology of knowledge is found in the work of Michel Foucault. Madness and Civilization postulated that conceptions of madness and what was considered "reason" or "knowledge" was itself subject to major culture bias — in this respect mirroring similar criticisms by Thomas Szasz , at the time the foremost critic of psychiatry , and himself now an eminent psychiatrist.
A point where Foucault and Szasz agreed was that sociological processes played the major role in defining "madness" as an "illness" and prescribing "cures". In The Birth of the Clinic : An Archeology of Medical Perception , Foucault extended his critique to institutional clinical medicine, arguing for the central conceptual metaphor of " The Gaze ", which had implications for medical education , prison design , and the carceral state as understood today. Concepts of criminal justice and its intersection with medicine were better developed in this work than in Szasz and others, who confined their critique to current psychiatric practice.
The Order of Things and The Archeology of Knowledge introduced abstract notions of mathesis and taxonomia to explain the subjective 'ordering' of the human sciences. These, he claimed, had transformed 17th and 18th century studies of "general grammar" into modern " linguistics ", " natural history " into modern " biology ", and " analysis of wealth " into modern " economics "; though not, claimed Foucault, without loss of meaning. According to Foucault, the 19th century transformed what knowledge was. Perhaps Foucault's best-known claim [ according to whom? Foucault regarded notions of humanity and of humanism as inventions of modernity.
Introduction to Sociology/Sociological Practice
Accordingly, a cognitive bias had been introduced unwittingly into science, by over-trusting the individual doctor or scientist's ability to see and state things objectively. Foucault roots this argument in the rediscovery of Kant, though his thought is significantly influenced by Nietzsche — that philosopher declaring the "death of God" in the 19th century, and the anti-humanists proposing the "death of Man" in the 20th. In Discipline and Punish: the Birth of the Prison , Foucault concentrates on the correlation between knowledge and power. According to him, knowledge is a form of power and can conversely be used against individuals as a form of power.
Institutions such as schools reinforce the dominant ideological forms of thinking onto the populace and force us into becoming obedient and docile beings. Knowledge ecology is a concept originating from knowledge management and that aimed at "bridging the gap between the static data repositories of knowledge management and the dynamic, adaptive behavior of natural systems",  and in particular relying on the concept of interaction and emergence. Knowledge ecology, and its related concept information ecology has been elaborated by different academics and practitioners such as Thomas H.
Davenport ,  Bonnie Nardi ,  or Swidler. The New Sociology of Knowledge a postmodern approach considering knowledge as culture by drawing upon Marxist, French structuralist, and American pragmatist traditions  introduces new concepts that dictate how knowledge is socialized in the modern era by new kinds of social organizations and structures. American sociologist Robert K. Legitimation Code Theory LCT emerged as a framework for the study of knowledge and education and is now being used to analyse a growing range of social and cultural practices across increasingly different institutional and national contexts, both within and beyond education.
It also integrates insights from sociology including Durkheim, Marx, Weber and Foucault , systemic functional linguistics , philosophy such as Karl Popper and critical realism , early cultural studies, anthropology especially Mary Douglas and Ernest Gellner , and other approaches. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
An Introduction to Sociology
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Statements consisting only of original research should be removed. Main article: Karl Mannheim. Main article: Michel Foucault. Main article: Knowledge ecology. Main article: Robert K. Sociology of scientific knowledge Sociology of scientific ignorance Socially constructed reality Social constructivism Epistemology Ontology Knowledge management Knowledge Noogenesis Bibliography of sociology.
Thomas University. Rubio, F. The politics of non-knowing: An emerging area of social and political conflict in reflexive modernity.
New York: Routledge. American Sociological Review. Primitive classification. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Versuche zu einer Soziologie des Wissens.
Introduction to Sociology
Karl Mannheim. Ideology and utopia: an introduction to the sociology of knowledge. Translated by Louis Wirth and Edward Shils. Capital, Book 1 part IV. Chapter 13, note 89 footnote mentions Vico. Classical sociological theory. The elementary forms of the religious life. Joseph Ward Swain, p. Discipline and Punish. New York: Random House. The Systems Thinker. Information Ecology. Oxford University Press. Information Ecology: Using Technology with Heart.
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Cambridge: MIT Press. The New Sociology of Knowledge.
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Annual Review of Sociology , 20, pp. Social Theory and Social Structure. Both France and the United States, commonly said to be the first modern nations, inscribed a commitment to freedom and liberty in their declarations of independence and documents of rights. Articulated notions of freedom in these societies, however, existed alongside continued practices of colonial domination, enslavement of populations, trade in human beings, and a belief that some had a greater right to be free than others. Freedom, in their terms, while espoused abstractly as a universal freedom was, in practice, more circumscribed — its full enjoyment restricted to white, propertied men of some distinction.
Alongside this tradition, however, there has been another tradition which developed a more expansive understanding of the concept. It is to that tradition that I now turn. Frederick Douglass, a self-emancipated African American, and leader of the abolitionist movement in the north, was a key spokesperson in the struggle against slavery in the midth century. He, along with others, argued strongly that the abolition of slavery would require both a redefinition of the nation and that social and political freedom must be accompanied by economic opportunity to redress the poverty of African Americans created through two centuries of slavery see Buccola, ; Foner, The US Civil War, which began in , did not have emancipation as one of its aims.
However, emancipation of enslaved African Americans was one of its outcomes. Mass, collective self-emancipation forced the hand of the legislators into legalizing the de facto actions of African Americans. The broader social context was also one of widespread and systematic violence against African Americans, including lynchings and the establishment of the Ku Klux Klan see Johnson, The Jim Crow years of institutionalized violence against African Americans lasted close on a century, from till , and only came to a formal end with the passing of the Civil Rights Act and the Voting Rights Act in the s King, While standard histories of Reconstruction laid the blame for its failure to remake the nation on the variously attributed insufficiencies of those who had been freed, Du Bois , in Black Reconstruction , argued that its failure, rather, resided in problems associated with the very system of the US itself see Lemert, He argued strongly for recognition of the contribution made by African Americans to reconstruct democracy during this period and gave voice to this silenced history.