This chapter identifies environmental health and safety consideration for handling, applying, removing, and disposing pavement markings. The chapter addresses the following topics:. Pavement marking application and removal techniques have been summarized based on field observations and personal experience of the authors.
Environmental health and safety considerations were evaluated based on existing research available in published literature and through the experience of the authors. Federal environmental and occupational safety regulations pertaining to the pavement markings industry were reviewed to provide regulatory context within the chapter. The following Federal regulations are discussed:. The provided discussion is meant to act as an overview of existing regulatory frameworks that pertain to the industry and not as a comprehensive overview.
The process of using LCA to inform decisionmaking is described, and an outline for creating an LCA specific for pavement marking systems is given. In addition to an LCA approach for selecting products, BMPs aimed at reducing environmental health and safety considerations are discussed. BMPs for reducing exposures during storage, handling, application, and removal of pavement marking products are discussed.
Included within the BMP discussion are recommendations for standardizing MSDS reporting practices for pavement marking products and a need for technical specifications for the pavement markings industry. Durability is defined as how long materials retain their daytime and nighttime visibility.
Lead-Based Paint Handbook
In addition to durability, environmental health and safety issues are important considerations when selecting pavement markings. The basic components of a pavement marking material are a binder and a reflective element. The binder provides the pavement marking physical presence day and night and its color. It also serves as a holder of reflective elements. The binder can be a liquid or a preformed solid that is glued to a surface or melted into a surface.
The most important and most prevalent components of a binder are the pigment, resin, and filler. Pigment gives the material color, opacity, and body, as well as the ability to provide retroreflection. A pavement marking typically needs to be white or yellow.
How well a pigment accomplishes this task and how it wears is important. However, some of the most effective and durable yellow pigments contain lead and other heavy metals that can create potential environmental and occupational safety issues. The filler is a cost effective measure that supplements the performance gained from the more expensive pigment. Resin is the glue that holds the marking together and gives it durability. For some paints, the resin also allows the markings to be applied in less-than-ideal weather or pavement conditions. Reflective elements are necessary to improve pavement marking visibility at night.
The reflective elements enable the pavement marking to reflect light from a vehicle head light back to the driver. This process is called retroreflection. Retroreflection returns the light back to the light source rather than bouncing the light off the reflective surface and away from the light source. The retroreflective elements are either dropped on a liquid-applied pavement marking such as paint or embedded in the material as it is made such as preformed tape.
Traffic paints are water- or solvent-based paints that are typically sprayed as lines on the surface of pavement. Traffic paints are the oldest and most widely used pavement marking materials in existence. Paint is the most inexpensive of all pavement marking materials, although its cost has increased slightly as new formulations have been introduced and the market has narrowed. Paint is almost exclusively used for long-line applications.
The traffic paint market has changed alongside the architectural paint market due to regulatory impacts caused by VOC limits and regulation regarding the use of lead-based pigments. The primary components of traffic paint are finely ground pigments that are mixed into a resin or binder system.
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Additives provide additional desired properties. Pigments are mixed with water or solvent in order to apply the paints. Prime pigments within the paint introduce chemical properties such as ultraviolet UV stability or physical properties such as color and hiding the ability of a paint to cover or block out the surface beneath it. Extender pigments or fillers are also commonly used to bring the pigment level up to the required point. Fillers help reduce cost and give the paint consistency, durability, permeability, and scrubability. Paint pigments and retroreflective elements are held together and to the road surface by a resin.
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The most common resin in water-based traffic paints are synthetic polymer acrylic-based resins often referred to as latex paints. Latex paint systems are utilized for their ability to dry quickly following application, which is known as "fast dry. Paint with a fast drying resin will dry within 1. In waterborne paint, water is primarily a diluting agent.
It holds the resin emulsion in solution with the other components until the paint has been applied. The drying time may be reduced by adding ammonia or methanol to the paint. Methanol is also an antifreeze and can be added to protect the paint from freezing in its container and storage tanks. Traffic paint is most commonly applied with a paint spray gun. Air spray application is commonly called air atomizing. Airless spraying has become the most common method of applying traffic paint. It has proven to be faster and less troublesome than air atomize spraying, hence its popularity.
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However, the high pressures associated with airless spraying present additional occupational safety risks. Figure 33 depicts paint application with a truck sprayer.
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Figure Applying paint with a truck sprayer. Thermoplastic pavement marking uses a block and granular material and melts it so that it can be sprayed, gravity extruded, or pressure extruded often called ribbon extruded onto pavement as a line. Thermoplastic is a blend of solid ingredients that become liquid when heated and melted. Reflective elements are mixed into the material by the manufacturer and can be applied to the surface following application. Thermoplastic systems become homogenized when heated and agitated.
Thermoplastic adheres to hot mix asphalt concrete HMAC by forming a thermal bond. When thermoplastic markings are used on PCC, the PCC must first be treated with a liquid-applied primer where the thermoplastic is to be applied. The elements of thermoplastic paints include pigments, reflective elements, fillers, binders, additives, and primer. Pigment within thermoplastic paints provides color and chemical properties such as UV stability and hiding.
Heating does not present a problem for white pigment like titanium dioxide, but it has proven difficult for yellow organic pigments. Yellow pigments containing lead chromate are very effective with respect to heat stability, UV durability, and color. However, organic yellow pigments are less effective than lead chromate yellow pigments in thermoplastic markings. Fillers, such as calcium carbonate, are added to the thermoplastic paints to provide additional volume, improving durability without the higher cost of the additional pigments.
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Thermoplastic markings use either hydrocarbon-based polymers or plant- and vegetable-based alkyd a modified polyester as a binder. Thermoplastic is usually named for the type of resin used. The hydrocarbon thermoplastics are typically used for long lines along roadways, and alkyd thermoplastics are most often used for short lines crosswalks, stop lines, legends, and symbols.
In order to enhance product application, plasticizers are also added. Three common methods for applying thermoplastic traffic markings are a spray gun, an extrusion shoe, and a ribbon gun. The spray gun operates much like a traffic paint spray gun. The extrusion process forces the thermoplastic material through a die or shoe riding on the pavement surface. With the ribbon gun, the thermoplastic material is forced through the system, into the gun, and onto the pavement. Another variation of thermoplastic pavement markings is called profile thermoplastic, which offers improved durability and better visibility in wet pavement conditions.
Profiled thermoplastic pavement markings can also be used as a longitudinal rumble strip. Profiled thermoplastic markings are a variation of normal extruded thermoplastic line markings created by providing a bump or an inversion to give the line a "profile" during application. The profile, if configured at a height of around 0.
Profile thermoplastic is often called rumble line. The line, in effect, also becomes a longitudinal rumble strip. Longitudinal rumble strips are used to provide a run-off-the-road crash reduction technique that is in wide use on rural highways in the United States.
The two most common types of profiled thermoplastics are inverted profile markings and raised profile markings. Inverted profile markings are created by rolling a patented rack and pinion wheel over wet or cooling thermoplastic.
Profiling gives the line a corrugated appearance. Raised profile markings are created by extruding a thermoplastic marking of normal thickness with a raised thermoplastic "bump" at a uniform spacing. Melt-in-place preformed thermoplastic tape is a preassembled thermoplastic laminate, which is placed on the pavement surface and then melted into the surface via a heat source such as a propane torch. Preformed thermoplastic markings are manufactured in shapes ready to use on pavement and are typically used for symbols at intersections or other pavement identification uses.
Preformed tapes do not have any preapplied adhesive, and bonding to the pavement is achieved thermally.