In specific areas it may refer to: Spectroscopy in chemistry and physics, a method of analyzing the properties of matter from their electromagnetic interactions Spectral estimation , in statistics and signal processing, an algorithm that estimates the strength of different frequency components the power spectrum of a time-domain signal. This may also be called frequency domain analysis Spectrum analyzer , a hardware device that measures the magnitude of an input signal versus frequency within the full frequency range of the instrument Spectral theory , in mathematics, a theory that extends eigenvalues and eigenvectors to linear operators on Hilbert space, and more generally to the elements of a Banach algebra In nuclear and particle physics, gamma spectroscopy, and high-energy astronomy, the analysis of the output of a pulse height analyzer for characteristic features such as spectral line , edges, and various physical processes producing continuum shapes Disambiguation page providing links to topics that could be referred to by the same search term.

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Plot the first samples of the two signals. Use the pspectrum function to get the power spectrum of y1 computed by dividing it into 40 overlapping segments with overlap fraction of 0.

PsP1 pspectrum y1 n2 r hw. L1 length PsP1. Use the match and max functions to find the peak sample s of the power spectrum. Plot the spectrum in decibels. Use markers to mark the common frequency and the maximum decibel value. The plot shows that all the signal power occurs at the common frequencies fc and 1-fc. Calculate the noise power. Calculate the noise power gain in dB.

Calculate the height using the fact that the above two frequency samples divided by the spectrum length should give the average power in the sine component, which is 0. Compare in decibels the theoretical and actual heights.

Typically, the cross spectrum is used to detect similarities in two signals, for example comparing a known speech waveform say the vowel 'a' with an unknown speech waveform say the word 'apple' to see if the known waveform is present in the unknown waveform. Just as the power spectrum of a time series is similar to its auto-correlation, the cross spectrum for two time series is similar to their cross-correlation. For stationary random sequences, the spectrum functions return the same values as the correlation functions.

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## Spectral Analysis

Apply the cspectrum function to signals y1 and y2 , using 40 overlapping segments with overlap fraction of 0. CsP cspectrum y1 y2 n2 r trw. L2 length CsP. Plot the cross spectrum, keeping in mind that it is complex and therefore the log should be applied to the magnitude. The cross spectrum of y1 and y2 shows a peak at the common frequencies fc and 1- fc. The coherence function measures the linear dependence of one signal on another, is equal to the squared magnitude of the cross spectrum of two signals divided by both power spectra, and ranges in value from zero to one.

Values of 1 for the coherence function tend to indicate that both signals have strong noise-free components in that frequency band, while values of 0 indicate that there is mostly noise in that frequency band.

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Another method is b dividing, for each frequency, the power at all time points by the average power in the baseline interval. This gives the relative increase or relative decrease of the power at all ferquencies and time points with respect to the power in the baseline interval.

Note that the relative baseline is expressed as a ratio; i.

There are three ways of graphically representing the data: 1 time-frequency plots of all channels, in a quasi-topographical layout, 2 time-frequency plot of an individual channel or the average of several channels , 3 topographical 2-D map of the power changes in a specified time-frequency interval. Settings can be adjusted in the cfg structure.

For example:. By using the options cfg.

## Spectral analysis of heart rate variability signal and respiration in diabetic subjects.

See also the plotting tutorial for more details. An interesting effect seems to be present in the TFR of channel 1. If you see plotting artifacts in your figure, see this question. From the figure, you can see that there is an increase in power around Hz in the time interval 0. Figure: A topographic representation of the time-frequency representations 3 - 8 Hz, 0. Plot the power with respect to a relative baseline hint: use cfg.

### Supporting Information

How are the responses different? Discuss the assumptions behind choosing a relative or absolute baseline. An alternative to calculating TFRs with sliding windows is to use Morlet wavelets. This approach is very similar to calculating TFRs with time windows that depend on the frequency and using a Gaussian taper. The commands below illustrate how to do this. One crucial parameter to set is cfg.

## Spectral analysis | Statistical Software for Excel

It determines the width of the wavelets in number of cycles. Making the value smaller will increase the temporal resolution at the expense of frequency resolution and vice versa. Adjust cfg. If you would like to learn more about plotting of time-frequency representations, please see the visualization section or the plotting tutorial.

In the remainder of this tutorial we will be analyzing the EEG data from an single subject from the Chennu et al. As it is a resting state recording, we assume that the power spectrum is stationary i. Specifically, we will cut the data into non-overlapping segments of various lengths 1 sec, 2 secs and 4 secs and we will compute the power spectrum of all data segments and average them. Can you explain why the amplitude of the power spectra decrease increasing the window length?