So this universe looks highly contingent after all, and a creator God might well choose to create a partly probabilistic universe by choosing just such an origin for it. Russell has shown, moreover, that at the core of the doctrine of creatio ex nihilo is the principle of ontological dependence - that all matter, all energy, and the laws that govern the universe all depend for their existence on a God whose existence is not dependent on anything.

The discovery of an actual temporal beginning to this material universe would not prove this doctrine since the doctrine rests on metaphysical convictions about God and existence but only provide an additional gloss to it. Email link Feedback Contributed by: Dr. Theological Responses to Quantum Cosmology The Hawking-Hartle Proposal for the early universe is the most ingenious of the quantum-cosmological speculations which aim to overcome the problem of the singularity.

Stephen Hawking posed the question: So long as the universe had a beginning, we could suppose that it had a creator. The militantly atheistic Oxford chemist P. Atkins has written that: The only way of explaining the creation is to show that the creator had absolutely no job at all to do, and so might as well not have existed. He writes: On the quantum fluctuation hypothesis, the universe will only come into being if there exists an exactly balanced array of fundamental forces, an exactly specified probability of particular fluctuations occurring in this array, and existent space-time in which fluctuations can occur.

### Beyond Edge

The discovery of an actual temporal beginning to this material universe would not prove this doctrine since the doctrine rests on metaphysical convictions about God and existence but only provide an additional gloss to it Topic Index. Show Related Topics. Topic Sets Available. Creativity, Spirituality and Computing Technologies. Divine Action GHC. Dreams and Dreaming: Neuroscientific and Religious Visions'.

## Quantum Cosmology vs. Observational Cosmology (A Simple, Curious and Advanced Approach)

Evangelical Atheism: a response to Richard Dawkins. Quantum Grav.

Due to the numerical complexities of studying evolution in an anisotropic quantum spacetime, in comparison to the isotropic models, the physics of loop quantized anisotropic models has remained largely unexplored. In particular, robustness of bounce and the validity of effective dynamics have so far not been established.

Our analysis fills these gaps for the case of vacuum Bianchi-I spacetime. To efficiently solve the quantum Hamiltonian constraint we perform an implementation of the Cactus framework which is conventionally used for applications in numerical relativity. Using high performance computing, numerical simulations for a large number of initial states with a wide variety of fluctuations are performed.

Big bang singularity is found to be replaced by anisotropic bounces for all the cases. We find that for initial states which are sharply peaked at the late times in the classical regime and bounce at a mean volume much greater than the Planck volume, effective dynamics is an excellent approximation to the underlying quantum dynamics. Departures of the effective dynamics from the quantum evolution appear for the states probing deep Planck volumes. A detailed analysis of the behavior of this departure reveals a non-monotonic and subtle dependence on fluctuations of the initial states.

We find that effective dynamics in almost all of the cases underestimates the volume and hence overestimates the curvature at the bounce, a result in synergy with earlier findings in the isotropic case. The expansion and shear scalars are found to be bounded throughout the evolution. This approach misses interesting cosmological dynamics coming from the polymer quantization of matter. We demonstrate this in semiclassical cosmology with a scalar field and pressureless dust: gravity is kept classical, dust is used to fix the time gauge, and polymer quantization effects are isolated in the scalar field.

The resulting dynamics shows a period of inflation, both with and without a scalar potential, and the emergence of a classical universe at late times.

## Could Quantum Mechanics Explain the Existence of Spacetime? - The Crux

Since gravity is not quantized, the cosmological singularity is not resolved, but our results suggest that polymer quantization of both gravity and matter are important for a complete picture. The goal of this paper is to probe phenomenological implications of large fluctuations of quantum geometry in the Planck era, using cosmology of the early universe. By introducing suitable methods to overcome the ensuing conceptual and computational issues, we calculate the power spectrum and the spectral index n s k of primordial curvature perturbations.

These results generalize the previous work in loop quantum cosmology which focused on those states which were known to remain sharply peaked throughout the Planck regime. Surprisingly, even though the fluctuations we now consider are large, their presence does not add new features to the final and n s k : within observational error bars, their effect is degenerate with a different freedom in the theory, namely the number of pre-inflationary e-folds between the bounce and the onset of inflation.

Therefore, with regard to observational consequences, one can simulate the freedom in the choice of states with large fluctuations in the Planck era using the simpler, sharply peaked states, simply by allowing for different values of. We find that the expansion is best suited for consideration of conceptual questions and for investigating short-time, highly quantum behavior.

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In order to study dynamics at cosmological scales, the expansion must be carried to very high order, limiting its direct utility as a calculational tool for such questions. Conversely, it is unclear that the expansion can be truncated at finite order in a controlled manner. We study solutions to the effective equations for the Bianchi IX class of spacetimes within loop quantum cosmology LQC. We consider Bianchi IX models whose matter content is a massless scalar field, by numerically solving the loop quantum cosmology effective equations, with and without inverse triad corrections.

The solutions are classified using certain geometrically motivated classical observables.

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Moreover, due to the positive spatial curvature, there is an infinite number of bounces and recollapses. We study the limit of large field momentum and show that both effective theories reproduce the same dynamics, thus recovering general relativity.

### Main Article Content

We comment on the possible implications of these results for a quantum modification to the classical BKL behaviour. Observational missions have provided us with a reliable model of the evolution of the universe starting from the last scattering surface all the way to future infinity. Furthermore given a specific model of inflation, using quantum field theory on curved space-times this history can be pushed back in time to the epoch when space-time curvature was some 10 62 times that at the horizon of a solar mass black hole!

However, to extend the history further back to the Planck regime requires input from quantum gravity. An important aspect of this input is the choice of the background quantum geometry and of the Heisenberg state of cosmological perturbations thereon, motivated by Planck scale physics. This paper introduces first steps in that direction. Specifically we propose two principles that link quantum geometry and Heisenberg uncertainties in the Planck epoch with late time physics and explore in detail the observational consequences of the initial conditions they select.

We find that the predicted temperature—temperature T—T correlations for scalar modes are indistinguishable from standard inflation at small angular scales even though the initial conditions are now set in the deep Planck regime.